- For 1999, the second National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children (NISMART), estimated that 203,900 children had experienced a family abduction.
- 44% of family abducted children were younger than age 6.
- Biological fathers were the most frequent abductor.
Hammer, H., Finkelhor, D., & Sedlak, A. (2002). Children abducted by family members: National estimated and Characteristics. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.