The Highest Glass Ceiling: Women’s Quest for the American Presidency
by Ellen Fitzpatrick
Harvard University Press (February 29, 2016)
In The Highest Glass Ceiling, best-selling historian Ellen Fitzpatrick tells the story of three remarkable women who set their sights on the American presidency. Victoria Woodhull (1872), Margaret Chase Smith (1964), and Shirley Chisholm (1972) each challenged persistent barriers confronted by women presidential candidates. Their quest illuminates today’s political landscape, showing that Hillary Clinton’s 2016 campaign belongs to a much longer, arduous, and dramatic journey.
The tale begins during Reconstruction when the radical Woodhull became the first woman to seek the presidency. Although women could not yet vote, Woodhull boldly staked her claim to the White House, believing she might thereby advance women’s equality. Republican Senator Margaret Chase Smith came into political office through the “widow’s mandate.” Among the most admired women in public life when she launched her 1964 campaign, she soon confronted prejudice that she was too old (at 66) and too female to be a creditable presidential candidate. She nonetheless became the first woman to have her name placed in nomination for President by a major party. Democratic Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm ignored what some openly described as the twin disqualifications of race and gender in her spirited 1972 presidential campaign. She ran all the way to the Democratic convention, inspiring diverse followers and angering opponents, including members of the Nixon administration who sought to derail her candidacy.
As The Highest Glass Ceiling reveals, women’s pursuit of the Oval Office, then and now, has involved myriad forms of influence, opposition, and intrigue.
La novela histórica española contemporánea: novedades y transformaciones (Del 98 al nuevo milenio)
edited by Carmen Garcia De La Rasilla
Editorial Verdelis (January 1, 2016)
Edited by Carmen García de la Rasilla, this book deepens our knowledge of one of the most popular, successful and less studied genres in modern Spanish literature. Departing from the transformation initiated by Miguel de Unamuno in Peace in War (1897), his novel on the Second Carlist War, the volume aims to illuminate the genre’s major innovations and changes during those special periods affected by political and cultural crises in contemporary Spain, such as the transitions from the 19th to the 20th century and between the 20th century and the new millennium. It was just at those chronological crossroads, among attempts at constructing a collective memory, when historical novels became indispensable to understand and even to control, at least at a literary level, a buried past that often returns in uncanny ways. The essays gathered in this collection highlight the narrative hybridism of the genre, as well as its protean and contradictory nature. They also suggest useful insights and innovative reading strategies to navigate the playful labyrinth built by the complex relationships between history and fiction and invite reflection on a postmodern aesthetic characterized by contradiction, self-reference and subversion.
"The Elements of Mental Tests" provides an introduction to mental testing and the use of psychological and educational measures. Part I: The Elements of Measurement introduces the types of educational and psychological tests commonly in use, the test data those measures collect, and the types of test items that make up a test. Part II: The Elements of Test Scores introduces the mathematical models that professionals use to represent test-takers' answers to test questions. Part II begins with a review of basic statistics particularly relevant to measurement, including the conversion of test scores to z-scores and the use of correlation coefficients to relate test items and tests to one another. Part II continues with an integrated introduction to both Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory-the most influential methods for understanding tests in use today. Part III: The Elements of Test Quality examines the standards of good testing including a test's reliability and its precision of measurement, the evaluation of test validity, and the features of a good test administration. Altogether, the book provides a comprehensive foundation for readers who are interested in tests, in testing, and in their use in contemporary life.
Nicaragua and the Politics of Utopia: Development and Culture in the Modern State
by Daniel Chávez
Vanderbilt University Press (December 8, 2015)
The history of modern Nicaragua is populated with leaders promising a new and better day. Inevitably, as Nicaragua and the Politics of Utopia demonstrates, reality casts a shadow and the community must look to the next leader. As an impoverished state, second only to Haiti in the Americas, Nicaragua has been the scene of cyclical attempts and failures at modern development. Author Daniel Chávez investigates the cultural and ideological bases of what he identifies as the three decisive movements of social reinvention in Nicaragua: the regimes of the Somoza family of much of the early to mid-twentieth century; the governments of the Sandinista party; and the present-day struggle to adapt to the global market economy.
For each era, Chávez reveals the ways Nicaraguan popular culture adapted and interpreted the new political order, shaping, critiquing, or amplifying the regime's message of stability and prosperity for the people. These tactics of interpretation, otherwise known as meaning-making, became all-important for the Nicaraguan people, as they opposed the autocracy of Somocismo, or complemented the Sandinistas, or struggled to find their place in the Neoliberal era. In every case, Chávez shows the reflective nature of cultural production and its pursuit of utopian idealism.
Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics Cambridge University Press; 2nd edition (November 30, 2015)
Morphology is the study of how words are put together. A lively introduction to the subject, this textbook is intended for undergraduates with relatively little background in linguistics. Providing data from a wide variety of languages, it includes hands-on activities such as 'challenge' boxes, designed to encourage students to gather their own data and analyze it, work with data on websites, perform simple experiments, and discuss topics with each other. There is also an extensive introduction to the terms and concepts necessary for analyzing words. Unlike other textbooks it anticipates the question 'is it a real word?' and tackles it head on by looking at the distinction between dictionaries and the mental lexicon. This second edition has been thoroughly updated, including new examples and exercises as well as a detailed introduction to using linguistic corpora to find and analyze morphological data.